Here’s a look at the life of Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro.
Date of birth: November 23, 1962
Place of birth: Caracas, Venezuela
Birth name: Nicolás Maduro Moros
Father: Nicolás Maduro García
Mother: Teresa de Jesús Moros
Marriage: Cilia Flores
Children: Nicolás Jr.
Worked as a bus driver for the Caracas Metro and belonged to a transport union.
Maduro campaigned for the release of Hugo Chavez from prison for the 1992 coup attempt to oust President Carlos Andres Perez.
After Chavez was released, Maduro helped him found the political party Fifth Republic Movement.
1999 – Maduro was elected to the nation’s Constituent Assembly, the body convened to draft a new constitution.
2000 – Is elected to the National Assembly, the legislative body of the state
2005-2006 – Serves as president of the national assembly.
2006-2013 – Is the Minister of Foreign Affairs.
October 12, 2012 – Is chosen by Chavez to serve as vice president.
December 9, 2012 – Chávez is facing his fourth operation for cancer and is backing Maduro to succeed him.
March 8, 2013 – Has been sworn in as interim president after Chavez’s death.
April 14, 2013 – Wins the presidential election by less than two percentage points. Maduro’s opponent, Henrique Capriles Radonski, is demanding a recount.
April 17, 2013 – A manual recount is ruled unconstitutional by the country’s chief justice.
April 19, 2013 – Maduro was sworn in.
September 30, 2013 – Maduro announces on state-run television that he is expelling three American diplomats. He claims they were involved in a widespread blackout earlier in the month. “Get out of Venezuela,” he says, naming several names. “Yankee go home. “There is enough abuse already.”
February 12, 2014 – An ongoing student protest draws world attention when three are killed. Major social and economic problems have fueled the protests, and some blame the government for those problems.
February 20, 2014 – Venezuela is revoking press credentials for CNN reporters in the country and denying them to other CNN reporters entering the country, after Maduro announced he would fire CNN if it did not “correct” its coverage of anti-government protests, calling it war propaganda.
February 21, 2014 – Maduro is calling on US President Barack Obama to “take up the challenge” of having direct talks with Venezuela.
February 22, 2014 – Venezuela is reissuing news credentials for CNN journalists in the country.
January 15, 2016 – After releasing years of economic data, Maduro declares an economic emergency.
May 1, 2017 – Maduro announces that he has signed an executive order paving the way for constitutional changes that will reshape the legislature and redefine his executive power.
May 13, 2016 – Maduro declares a constitutional state of emergency, expanding the economic emergency he declared in January.
October 30, 2016 – Maduro is engaging in talks with political opponents for the first time in two years.
July 30, 2017 – The vote is to replace the National Assembly with a new pro-Maduro legislative body called the Constituent Assembly. At least six people died in the clashes between police and protesters. Although Maduro claims victory, opposition leaders say the vote is fraudulent.
July 31, 2017 – The The US Treasury sanctions Maduro’s assets and bars US citizens from dealing with him. This comes a day after elections are held for a new legislative body.
January 24, 2018 – Announces that he will run for re-election.
May 20, 2018 – In an election condemned by opposition leaders and the international community, Maduro wins another six-year term. Voter turnout drops to 46%, but was 80% in 2013. The day after at an alliance of 14 Latin American nations and Canada, known as the Lima Group, issues a statement calling the vote illegal.
August 4, 2018 – Several drones armed with explosives fly towards Maduro in an apparent military assassination attempt. The following day, the Minister of the Interior announced that six people had been arrested in connection with the attack. Maduro is not hurt.
August 5, 2018 – Interior Minister Néstor Reverol says that six people have been arrested after the assassination attempt on Maduro.
September 8, 2018 – The New York Times reports on secret meetings between US officials and military commanders in Venezuela plotting a coup against Maduro. CNN confirms the report, which describes a series of meetings per year.
September 17, 2018 – Maduro is criticized for eating a lavish meal by celebrity chef Nusret Gökçe, also known as Salt Bae, in the midst of a food crisis.
September 25, 2018 – The United States is imposing sanctions on Maduro’s wife and three other members of his inner circle, in an attempt to weaken his hold on power.
September 26, 2018 – Speaking at the UN General Assembly, Maduro calls the humanitarian crisis in his country a “fabrication”. He accuses the United States and its allies in Latin America of “trying to put their hands in our country.”
October 8, 2018 – One of the suspects in the assassination attempt dies when he falls from the tenth floor of a building. Detectives say the death was a suicide.
January 10, 2019 – Maduro was sworn in for a second term, although most democracies in the region refuse to recognize him as president. The Organization of American States says its member nations voted 19-6, with eight abstentions, not to recognize the legitimacy of Maduro’s government.
January 23, 2019 – Juan Guaido, who leads the National Assembly, declares himself interim president following protests against the government. Following Guaido’s announcement, US President Donald Trump says the US recognizes him as the legitimate president. Maduro accuses the United States of supporting a coup attempt and gives American diplomats 72 hours to leave the country.
April 30, 2019 – In a live televised address, Maduro claims that troops loyal to him have defeated an “attempted coup” by Trump and National Security Adviser John Bolton. US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo says in an interview with CNN that Maduro was preparing to leave the country by plane, but Russia convinced him to stay. A Russian Foreign Ministry spokeswoman says Pompeo’s claim is false.
July 4, 2019 – The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights publishes a report that is highly critical of the Maduro regime. Based on research conducted from January 2018 to May 2019, the report highlights “patterns of violations that directly and indirectly affect all human rights”. Maduro responded a few days later, saying the report contains manipulation and inaccurate data.
March 26, 2020 – The Justice Department announces narco-terrorism and other charges against Maduro and senior leaders of his government. Federal prosecutors in southern New York, Miami and Washington, DC, allege the officials are leaders of the so-called Cartel de los Soles and are collaborating with the Colombian rebel group FARC to smuggle cocaine into the United States.
May 4, 2020 – In a live address on state television, Maduro reports that two American “mercenaries” have been arrested after a failed coup attempt to arrest and remove him. He identifies the arrested Americans as Luke Denman, 34, and Airan Berry, 41. He shows what he claims are the men’s US passports and driver’s licenses, along with their IDs from Silvercorp, a Florida security services company. On August 8, the men were sentenced to 20 years in prison.
July 24, 2021 – In an interview with Venezuelan state television, Maduro says he is ready to start negotiations with the opposition in Venezuela in August.
16 October 2021 – Venezuela is suspending ongoing negotiations with the opposition following the extradition of Colombian businessman Alex Saab, Maduro’s alleged financier, to the United States on money laundering charges.
September 20, 2022 – A new United Nations report documents crimes against humanity, including torture, by Venezuelan security forces. The report says orders for the crimes came from Maduro and other high-ranking officials.